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The first documentary on lands Sibiu dates back to December 20, 1191 , when Pope Celestine III confirmed the existence of free prepoziturii Germans in Transylvania, prepozitură which has been headquartered in Sibiu. Mentioned as the Hermannsdorf in 1321 , in the second half of the fourteenth century Sibiu get quality civitas in a document from 1366 being the first time mentioned the name of the village as Hermannstadt .

In the late fifteenth century formed the institution called the Saxon University at the forefront of the administrative hierarchy of all the Saxons , led by a royal judge , later committing the Saxons . Sibiu medieval period is characterized by continuous economic development , marked guilds . The first of these statutes ( 1376 ) enumerates 19 guilds ( of which 13 were active in Sibiu) with 25 trades ; Guilds number gradually increased in the second half of the sixteenth century there are 29 guilds and 40 to 1780 were documented in a period already grown considerable role of manufactures

Sibiu has grown steadily, becoming XV - XVIII strongest fortress of Transylvania and one of the most thriving and prosperous cities. While invincible citadel of Sibiu was for hundreds of years, she had to face attacks from the Ottomans, the most important took place in 1432, 1437, 1442 and 1493. The turn of the sixteenth and beginning of the next were marked by military conflicts which will influence the evolution of economic and social life of Sibiu. We refer here, first, the events related to campaigns of Michael the Brave, the battle of Şelimbăr (1599) and the siege being put on Sibiu from 1601 to 1603 by troops of Sigismund Báthory. Over more than a decade (1610) Sibiu is occupied by the army of Prince Gabriel Bathory. With the defeat of the Turks by the Austrians in the late seventeenth century, Transylvania became the Habsburg principality with its capital in Sibiu. Since 1688 in Sibiu Transylvania install military commander who will be based here until November 7, 1918. Administrative power of the new provinces was exercised by a government (Gubern) which has been headquartered in Sibiu between 1692-1791 and between 1850-1867. Sibiu was the residence of the Governor of Transylvania.

In the first half of the century. XIX a new wave of settlers, Landlers, sits around the city, the nearest being Turnisor community, then Neppendorf. Gradually the presence of Romanian population is increasingly living in the city. Since 1761, Sibiu became the most important religious and cultural center of Orthodox Romanians in Transylvania and in 1864 restored Metropolitan Andrei Saguna based in Sibiu Transylvania. Sibiu becomes the middle of the nineteenth century the spiritual center of the struggle for the emancipation of this nation. In the national liberation struggle of the Romanians in Sibiu is written by Simon Bărnuţiu manifesto - Romanian proclamation read by Blaj and everything was located in Sibiu Romanian National Committee chaired by Bishop Andrei Saguna. In 1863 this work opens Transylvanian Diet voting law on equal rights for the Romanian nation and its religion. Sibiu activates the Romanian National Party, the most important political party in Transylvania, which triggers the largest social-political movements in the second half of the nineteenth century - Movement Memorandum given that, since 1867 Transylvania was annexed Hungary under the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The second half of the nineteenth century and the first quarter of the twentieth century are characterized by an unprecedented economic and social development in Sibiu. Urban development , economic and social Sibiu enjoyed the early century . XX is braked the outbreak of the First World War. Sibiu had an important role in preparing the Union in 1918, and immediately after the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with Romania on 1 December 1918 Sibiu became the new capital of the province by the end of 1919 , this being based both Ruling Council (Government Transylvania ) and Great Assembly (Parliament Transylvania ) .

Name change official city in Sibiu in 1919 . In 1945 , after World War II , begin deportation to USSR Saxons . 2800 persons of German ethnicity were deported , many of them were never returned . The communist system with few exceptions have not reached the old town and Sibiu county seat is the same name in 1968 . At December 21, 1989 beginning at Sibiu anticommunist demonstrations continued on December 22 , resulting in 89 dead and hundreds injured. Sibiu was the second city , chronologically by Timisoara, who was up against dictatorship. The city has seen in recent years a significant economic and cultural revival , being today one of the cities with the highest level of foreign investment in Romania . Sibiu was the European Capital of Culture in 2007 , together with Luxembourg , the first city in Eastern Europe who receives this title .